HVAC Design Manual for Hospitals and Clinics [Ashrae] on *FREE * shipping on qualifying offers. Provides in-depth design recommendations and. W. Stephen Comstock. ASHRAE STAFF. Library of Congress Catalog-in- Publication Data. HVAC design manual for hospitals and clinics. – Second edition. Infection control experts have put together guidelines on hospital HVAC system (ASHRAE) “HVAC Design Manual for Hospitals and Clinics” includes this.
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The last page of this publication is an oversized page. It is a Design Manual for Mari A National Health and It is a in. It can be printed from Acrobat by selecting “Shrink oversized pages to paper size” in the Print dialog box, or ahd “Fit to Page”, depending on your version of Acrobat. Landscape orientation is recommended for that page.
Farnsworth Group Paul J. Army Corps of Engineers Richard D.
HVAC Design Manual for Hospitals and Clinics
Center for Energy and Environment Carl N. National Institutes of Health Frank A. Environmental Design Consultants Ltd. Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Ret. Partners HealthCare System, Inc.
New ASHRAE reference guides hospital HVAC design – Environmental Services
The committee is very thankful to numerous individuals who freely gave their time to review several parts of this manual.
Diablo Medical Center, Concord, Calif. Atlanta, GA www. The appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like.
The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user. No part of this book may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credit; nor may any part of this book be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any way or by any means—electronic, photocopying, recording, or other—without permission in writing from ASHRAE.
While the manual was being prepared, John suffered a stroke. During the final months of its preparation, we missed his keen engineering insight, insistence on technical accuracy, and clear and understandable writing.
Above all, we missed his humor and friendly presence at our meetings. We look forward to his continuing contribution to health care engineering and HVAC design.
Kowalski and William Bahnfleth. It is a design manual. It provides design strategies known to meet applicable standards and guidelines, whatever they may be. We had our first short committee meeting in San Francisco in Januaryafter which our work began. The committee met four times a year, twice at the national meetings and twice at other locations.
Even though we were working on a design manual, the committee identified a need for research. Farhad Memarzadeh, from the National Institutes of Health, conducted extensive research on patient room, isolation room, and operating room air distribution.
The research used both numerical and experimental techniques. Numerical technique included computational fluid dynamics and particle tracking model. The performance of the numerical approach was successfully verified by comparison with an extensive set of experimental measurements. As discussed in the Design Manual, temperature, humidity, and ventilation play important roles in the survival of airborne microorganisms. Most codes that are applicable to HVAC construction, however, do not currently address HVAC design criteria relevant to the effectiveness of ventilation, temperature, or humidity in controlling airborne microorganisms.
The problem appears to be less prevalent in North American jurisdictions but is a real and serious problem in many parts of the world. The intent of this statement is only to point out an existing problem, which must be corrected through other channels. We hope that the Design Manual will be adopted widely and used as a tool for education. We also hope that it will start an open dialog with code officials, the Authority Having Jurisdiction AHJclinicians, and HVAC designers, which will lead to the adoption of reasonable standards.
I also wish to thank two individuals in particular: It has been my privilege to work with a group of highly talented individuals who freely and voluntarily gave their time and incurred expenses to work on this manual. I have included a list of current committee members and other contributors.
During the past four years while this manual was being compiled, several committee members were forced, due to time constraints or health, to relinquish their involvement in this work. I do not want to minimize their contribution because it was very significant. Those contributors who were former committee members are so marked.
I thank the SP 91 committee and the many other contributors for their time and hard work. Respectfully submitted, Anand K. The higher filtration requirements for operating rooms and the pressure relationships between adjacent spaces are a few of the many design issues that are especially critical to the proper design and functioning of an HVAC system in a health care facility.
Health care facilities have special design criteria. Knowledge of, and insight into, these criteria are needed to develop a design that manjal satisfy the owner and operators of the facility.
Knowledge of regulatory requirements will minimize compliance problems. There are special considerations for the design of operating rooms. The HVAC requirements for operating rooms include regulating temperature and humidity, as well as space pressurization, filtration of the supplied air, allowable recirculation of the air, and the effectiveness of air delivery system options.
Health care facilities are environments of controlled hazards. Exposure to aerosolized pharmaceuticals, clinkcs contagions, and strong cleaning chemicals are examples of these hazards. Building-related illness, especially associated with airborne infectious agents, continues to be a challenge for health tor organizations that treat infectious patients and those extremely susceptible to coinics microbes such as Legionella and Aspergillus.
This manual will help delineate best practices for design and maintenance to optimize the safety of occupants. This premise, if followed, will help to establish a safe environment in modern health care facilities. The SP committee began work on this manual in Contributors also included members of the American College of Surgeons. Knowledge and experience with basic HVAC systems are presumed as prerequisites for users of this manual.
We assume that the reader is familiar with the theory and analysis of HVAC systems and refrigeration equipment and processes. Environmental comfort, Infection control, Energy conservation, Life safety, and Operation and maintenance.
This manual is intended to serve as a guide to the selection of HVAC systems for hospitals, clinics, and other health care facilities and to fill a gap left deesign current resources related to HVAC design for health care facilities. This manual is also intended to guide deeign design of HVAC systems to facilitate the operation and maintenance of hospitals and health care facilities. Experienced hospital designers who will use it as a reference Established firms for training personnel inhouse Facility managers Infection control personnel Facility maintenance staff Contractors Owners Building officials Designn officials Licensure officials Contractors, building officials, and owners can hbac this manual to familiarize themselves with the scope of technical issues and criteria for mechanical systems in medical facilities.
The design must provide a ventilation system that minimizes exposure hazards for health care providers and provides a comfortable working environment. HVAC systems must also provide ventilation that minimizes the hazard exposure of visitors.
Hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, and outpatient surgical centers ambulatory surgical centers are the primary types of facilities addressed in this book. A more detailed list of targeted hospitaks is provided in Chapter 3.
Many of these terms are unique to health care facilities. The chapter is intended to promote uniformity of usage and consistency in communication relating to the mechanical design of hospitals and the major technical issues.
This chapter introduces and summarizes HVAC design considerations and methodologies that are particularly significant in designing systems for hospitals.
The design concepts introduced in Chapter 4 are developed fully in other chapters of this manual. The topics introduced in Chapter 4 include infection control, noninfectious airborne contaminants, air quality, outside air ventilation, rates of total air change, room pressure relationships, dry-bulb temperature and humidity, filtration, codes, phases of design, equipment and system reliability and redundancy considerations, energy conservation, sound and vibration, life-cycle costing, value engineering, desing assurance of engineering design, peer review, construction management, and system commissioning.
Hospitals require central systems to meet filtration and humidity requirements. Constant volume systems are common. It describes the types of systems encountered in hospitals, configuration considerations, and the need for equipment redundancy and dependability. It also covers alternative cooling plant and heat rejection methods and the integration of thermal storage systems.
The maunal also provides a fairly in-depth treatment of the use of steam for humidification and sterilization, including a discussion of corrosion and system treatment chemicals related to system performance and human health. Also covered are the special design requirements for managing the movement of smoke in health care facilities to permit continuous occupancy of these buildings.
This chapter describes ventilation designs for various spaces in hospitals that have been used in practice to restrict air movement between spaces, dilute and remove airborne microorganisms and odors, and maintain required temperature and humidity levels.
New ASHRAE reference guides hospital HVAC design
Information includes diffuser types, layout suggestions, typical loads, airflow rates, and typical system applications for environmental control, infection control, and process cooling. The maintenance function in health care facilities can be provided in many different ways; some owners use in-house staff for sophisticated and sensitive maintenance services, whereas other owners perform a minimum of work in house and contract out all other needed services. All repair work, training, systems changes, and upgrades provided by the maintenance staff in patient care facilities must be carefully documented.
This chapter discusses many issues facing facilities managers and explains how to design for reduced maintenance costs. Commissioning and accurate testing hosoitals especially crucial for hospitals and clinics to ensure proper operation of HVAC systems, which are typically complex and work in close concert with the health care services provided. Energy-conscious HVAC systems can make a dramatic difference in the ongoing cost of facility manuxl. Health care facilities also consume large amounts of other resources— such as water and consumable materials—and produce large volumes of waste, much of which requires special removal and storage techniques.
This section provides an overview of the principles and approaches for achieving energy-efficient operation and the effective use of resources to reduce operating costs, manula valuable resources, and reduce the environmental impact of the building including ashdae harmful emissions and controlling wastes.
Information is included to guide hvav owners and operators and their designers toward HVAC design solutions that embody energy-efficient principles and achieve occupancy comfort, safety, and wellbeing. Disasters such hosoitals an earthquake, train wreck, chemical spill, bioterrorism, or infectious epidemic present an added set of considerations, primarily the designation of emergency spaces for serving larger than usual numbers of victims.
Provision of care can be greatly aided if spaces such as lobbies and meeting rooms have mechanical capabilities already in place that allow them to function as emergency treatment areas. Load Calculations and Equipment Heat Gains This appendix is not intended to duplicate any of the chapters in the ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals on air-conditioning load calculations but rather to highlight the specific aspects of cooling and heating load calculations for health care facilities.
Infection Control Issues This appendix describes the infection control issues in health care facilities, which are the only places where nosocomial infections can be acquired. Patients who have the worst infections wind up at a hospital. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Life-cycle cost analysis LCCA is a method of evaluating the economic value of design alternatives on a life-in-use basis, taking account of manufacture, supply, delivery to site, energy consumption, maintenance, and final disposal.
European design guidance shows further differences.