la biografia in inglese. Lazzaro Spallanzani Life, works Lazzaro Spallanzani was born in Scandiano on 12th January Son of Lucia Zigliani and G. Nicola. Lazzaro Spallanzani – Biography Lazzaro Spallanzani – Biografia. Lazzaro Spallanzani (b. Scandiano – d. Pavia), was a leading figure in the. Lazzaro Spallanzani (), biólogo italiano. Biólogo italiano, considerado uno de los fundadores de la biología.
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Lazzaro Spallanzaniborn Jan. His investigations into the development of microscopic life in nutrient culture solutions paved the way for the research of Louis Pasteur. Spallanzani was the son of a distinguished lawyer. He attended the Jesuit college at Reggio, where he received a sound education in the classics and philosophy. He was invited to join the order, but, although he was eventually ordained inhe declined this offer and went to Bologna to ,azzaro law.
Under the influence of his kinswoman Laura Bassia professor of mathematicshe became interested in science. In Spallanzani was appointed professor of logicmetaphysicsand Greek at Reggio College and in professor of physics at the University of Modena. Although Spallanzani published in an article critical of a new translation of the Iliad, all of his leisure was being devoted to scientific research. In he published a monograph on the mechanics of stones that bounce when thrown obliquely across water.
Spallanzani studied various forms of microscopic life and confirmed the view of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek that such forms are living organisms. In a series of experiments he showed that gravy, when boiled, did not produce these forms if placed in phials that were immediately sealed by fusing the glass. The results of his regeneration and transplantation experiments appeared lxzzaro He studied regeneration in a wide range of animals including planarians, snails, and amphibians and reached a number of general conclusions: His transplantation experiments showed great experimental skill and biogtafia the successful transplant of the head of one snail onto the body of another.
In he investigated the circulation of the blood through the lungs and other organs and did an important series of experiments on digestionin which he obtained evidence that digestive juice contains special chemicals that are suited to particular foods. At the request of his friend Charles BonnetSpallanzani investigated the male contribution to generation. Although the spermatozoa had first been seen in the 17th century, their function was not understood until some 30 years after the formulation of the cell theory in As a result of his earlier investigations into simple animals, Spallanzani supported the prevailing view that the spermatozoa were parasites within the semen.
Both Bonnet se Spallanzani accepted the preformation theory. According to their version of this theory, the germs of all living things were created by God in the beginning and were encapsulated within the first female of each species. Thus, the new individual present in each egg was not formed de novo but developed as the result of an expansion of parts the delineation of which had been laid down within the germ by God at the creation.
It was assumed that the semen provided a stimulus for this expansion, but it was not known if contact was essential nor if all the parts of the semen were required. Using amphibians, Spallanzani spallanzai that actual contact between egg and semen is essential for the development of a new animal and that filtered semen becomes less and less effective as filtration becomes more and more complete.
He noted that the residue on the filter paper retained all its original power if it were immediately added to the water containing the eggs.
Spallanzani concluded that it was the solid parts of the secretion, proteinaceous and fatty substances that form the bulk of the semen, that were essential, and he continued to regard the spermatozoa as inessential parasites. Despite this error, Spallanzani performed some of the first successful artificial insemination experiments on lower animals and on a dog.
In he accepted a chair at the University of Pavia, where, despite other offers, he remained for the rest of his life. He was popular with students and colleagues.
Once a small group, jealous of his success, accused him of malpractice in association with the museum that he controlled, but he was soon vindicated.
Spallanzani took every opportunity to lazzaor, to study new phenomena, and to meet other scientists. The accounts of his journeys to Constantinople and Sicily still provide interesting reading. Toward the end of his life he conducted further research on microscopic animals and plants that he had bioggrafia early in his career; he also began studies on the electric charge of the torpedo fish and sense organs in bats. In his last set of experiments, published posthumously, he attempted to show that the conversion of oxygen to carbon dioxide must occur in tissues, not in the lungs as Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier had suggested in We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.
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Yet the idea of spontaneous generation died hard. Even though it was clear that large animals developed from fertile eggs, there was still hope that smaller beings, microorganisms, spontaneously…. He published his findings aroundclaiming that Needham had not heated his tubes long enough, nor had he sealed them in a satisfactory manner. He busied himself with political economy and revived his interest in metaphysics by absorbing the ideas of 17th-century philosophers Benedict de Spinoza and Nicolas Malebranche.
This approach was refined in the s in Russia, and the subsequent development of methods for the cryopreservation preservation through freezing of semen led to the widespread use…. More About Lazzaro Spallanzani 4 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References artificial insemination in animals In artificial insemination: Artificial insemination in animals spontaneous-generation controversy In biology: Spontaneous generation In life: Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
John Needham – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
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