Combining history, sociology, and political commentary, Sarmiento explores the Facundo, Or, Civilization and Barbarism Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. A classic work of Latin American literature, Domingo Sarmiento’s Facundo has become an integral part of the history, politics, and culture of Latin America since . opposing values of Civilization and Barbarism. It was suggested that 1 Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Facundo: Civilización y barbarie, El Libro de. Bolsillo.
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Civilization and Barbarism original Spanish title: It is a cornerstone of Latin American literature: Subtitled Civilization and BarbarismFacundo contrasts civilization and barbarism as seen in early 19th-century Argentina. Facundo describes the life of Juan Facundo Quirogaa gaucho who had terrorized provincial Argentina in the s and s.
Kathleen Ross, one of Facundo’ s English translators, points out that the author also published Facundo to “denounce the tyranny of the Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas”.
Sarmiento sees Rosas as heir to Facundo: Throughout the text, Sarmiento explores the dichotomy between civilization and barbarism. The first edition of Facundo was published in instalments in Sarmiento removed the last two chapters of the second editionbut restored them in the edition, deciding that they were important to the book’s development.
The first translation into English, by Mary Mann, was published in A modern and complete translation by Kathleen Ross appeared in from the University of California Press. The book was a critical analysis of Argentine culture as he saw it, represented in men such as Rosas and the regional leader Juan Facundo Quirogaa warlord from La Rioja.
Facundo: or Civilization and Barbarism
For Sarmiento, Rosas and Quiroga were caudillos —strongmen who did not submit to the law. Sarmiento’s book is a critique and also a symptom of Argentina’s cultural conflicts. Inthe country had gained independence from the Spanish Empirebut Sarmiento complains that Argentina had yet to cohere as a unified entity. The country’s chief political division saw the Unitarists or Unitarians, sarmiennto whom Sarmiento sidedwho favored centralization, counterposed against the Federalistswho believed saarmiento the regions civklization maintain a good measure of autonomy.
This division was in part a split between the city and the countryside. Buenos Aires was exposed not only to trade divilization to fresh ideas and European culture. These economic and cultural differences caused tension between Buenos Aires and the land-locked regions of the country.
Argentina’s divisions led to a civil war that began in A frail agreement was reached in the early s, which led to the unification of the Republic just in time to wage the Cisplatine War annd the Empire of Brazilbut the relations between the Provinces reached civilizafion the point faustiho breaking-off inwhen Unitarist Bernardino Rivadavia was elected president and tried to enforce a newly enacted centralist Constitution.
Supporters of decentralized bxrbarism challenged the Unitarist Barbzrism, leading to the outbreak barbaarism violence. Federalists Juan Facundo Quiroga and Manuel Dorrego wanted more autonomy for the provinces and were inclined to reject Domongo culture.
However, under Rivadavia’s rule, the salaries of common laborers were subjected to government wage ceilings and the gauchos “cattle-wrangling horsemen of the pampas ”  were either imprisoned or forced to work without pay.
A series of governors were installed and replaced beginning in with the appointment of Federalist Manuel Dorrego as the governor of Buenos Aires. By the end ofthe legislature had appointed Rosas as governor of Buenos Aires.
In time, he learned how to manage the ranch and he established an authoritarian government in the area. While in power, Rosas incarcerated residents for ccivilization reasons, acts which Sarmiento argues were similar to Rosas’s treatment of cattle. Sarmiento argues that this was one method of making his citizens like the “tamest, most orderly cattle known”.
Juan Manuel de Rosas’s first term as governor lasted only three years. He ruled the country not as he did during his first term as governor, but as civilizarion dictator, forcing all citizens to support his Federalist regime.
Rosas’s enemies, real and imagined, were increasingly imprisoned, tortured, murdered, or driven into exile by the mazorcaa band of spies and thugs supervised personally by Rosas. In FacundoSarmiento is both the narrator and a main character. He also expresses and analyzes his own opinion and chronicles some historic events. Within the book’s dichotomy between civilization and barbarism, Sarmiento’s character represents civilization, steeped as he is in European and North American ideas; he stands for education and development, as opposed to Rosas and Facundo, who symbolize barbarism.
Sarmiento was an educator, a civilized man who was a militant adherent to the Unitarist movement. During the Argentine civil war he fought against Facundo several times, and while in Spain he became a member of the Literary Society of Professors.
He was a member of the Senate after Rosas’s fall and president of Argentina for six years — During his presidency, Sarmiento concentrated on migration, sciences, and culture. His ideas were based on European civilization; for him, the development civilizahion a country was rooted in education.
To this end, he founded Argentina’s military and naval colleges. After a lengthy introduction, Facundo’ s fifteen chapters divide broadly into three sections: Facundo begins with a geographical description of Argentina, from the Andes in the west to the eastern Atlantic coast, where two main river systems converge at the boundary between Argentina and Uruguay. This river estuary, called the Rio de Platais the location of Buenos Airesthe capital.
Through his discussion of Argentina’s geography, Sarmiento demonstrates Buenos Aires’ advantages; the river systems were communications arteries which, by enabling trade, helped the city to achieve civilization.
Buenos Aires failed to spread civilization to the rural areas and as a result, much of the rest of Argentina was doomed to barbarism.
Sarmiento then moves on to the Argentine peasants, who are “independent of all need, free of all subjection, with no idea of government”. They display their eagerness to prove their physical strength with horsemanship and knife fights. Rarely these displays led to deaths, and Sarmiento notes that Rosas’s residence fautino sometimes used as a refuge on such occasions, before he became politically powerful.
According to Sarmiento, these elements are crucial to an understanding of the Argentine Revolutionin which Argentina gained independence from Spain.
Sarmiejto people participated in the war to demonstrate their physical strengths rather than because they wanted to civilize the country. In the end, the revolution was a failure because the barbaric instincts of the rural population led to the loss and dishonor of the civilized city—Buenos Aires.
The second section of Facundo explores the life of its titular character, Juan Facundo Quiroga—the “Tiger of the Plains”. Sarmiento describes an incident in which Facundo killed a man, writing that this type of behaviour “marked his passage through the world”. He built his reputation and won his comrades’ respect through his fierce battlefield performances, but hated and tried to destroy those who differed from him by being civilized and well-educated. Inwhen Unitarist Bernardino Rivadavia became the governor of the Buenos Aires province, he held a meeting with representatives from all provinces in Argentina.
Facundo was present as the governor of La Sarkiento. Sarmiento contends that Dorrego, a Federalist, was interested neither in social progress nor in ending barbaric behaviour in Argentina by improving the level of civilization and education of its rural inhabitants. During the ensuing civil war between the two ideologies, Facundo conquered the provinces of San LuisCordoba and Mendoza.
Faustiho return to his San Juan home, which Sarmiento says Facundo governed “solely with his terrifying name”,  he realized that his government lacked support from Rosas.
Facundo, Or, Civilization and Barbarism – Domingo Faustino Sarmiento – Google Books
He went to Buenos Aires to confront Rosas, who sent him on another political mission. In the book’s final chapters, Sarmiento explores the consequences of Facundo’s death for the history and politics of the Argentine Republic.
Sarmiento criticizes Rosas by using the words of the faustin, making sarmineto remarks about Rosas’s actions, and describing the “terror” established during the dictatorship, the contradictions of the government, and the situation in the provinces that were ruled by Facundo.
Sarmiento writes, “The red ribbon is a materialization of the terror that accompanies you everywhere, in the streets, in the bosom of the family; it must be thought about when dressing, when undressing, and ideas are always engraved upon us by association”. Finally, Sarmiento examines the legacy of Rosas’s government by attacking the dictator and widening the civilization—barbarism dichotomy.
By setting France against Argentina—representing civilization and barbarism respectively—Sarmiento contrasts culture and savagery:.
France’s blockade had lasted for two years, and the ‘American’ government, inspired by ‘American’ spirit, was facing off with France, European principles, European pretensions. The social results of the French blockade, however, had been fruitful for the Argentine Republic, and served to demonstrate in all their nakedness the current state of mind and the new elements of struggle, which were to ignite a fierce war that can end only with the fall of that monstrous government.
Spanish critic and philosopher Abd de Unamuno comments of the book, “I never took Facundo by Sarmiento as a historical work, nor do I think it can be very valued in that regard. I always thought of it as a literary work, as a historical novel”.
Facundo: or Civilization and Barbarism by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
Even the first section, describing Argentina’s geography, follows this pattern, since Sarmiento contends that Facundo is a natural product of this environment. The book is partly fictional, as well: Sarmiento draws on his imagination in addition to historical fact in describing Rosas.
In FacundoSarmiento outlines his argument that Rosas’s dictatorship is the main cause of Argentina’s problems. The themes of barbarism and savagery that run through the book are, to Sarmiento, consequences of Rosas’s dictatorial government. Facundo is not only a critique of Rosas’s dictatorship, but a broader investigation into Argentine history and culture, which Sarmiento charts through the rise, controversial rule, and downfall of Juan Facundo Quiroga, an archetypical Argentine caudillo.
Sarmiento summarizes the book’s message in the phrase “That is the point: The conflict between civilization and barbarism mirrors Latin America’s difficulties in the post-Independence era. Literary critic Sorensen Goodrich argues that although Sarmiento was not the first to articulate this dichotomy, he forged it into a powerful and prominent theme that would impact Latin American literature. Facundo set forth an oppositional message that promoted a more beneficial alternative for society at large.
Although Sarmiento advocated various changes, such as honest officials who understood enlightenment ideas of European and Classical origin, for him education was the key. Caudillos like Facundo Quiroga are seen, at the beginning of the book, as the antithesis of education, high culture, and civil stability; barbarism was like a never ending litany of social ills.
If Sarmiento viewed himself as civilized, Rosas was barbaric. Historian David Rock argues that “contemporary opponents reviled Rosas as a bloody tyrant and a symbol of barbarism”. In linking Europe with civilization, and civilization with education, Sarmiento conveyed an admiration of European culture and civilization which at the same time gave him a sense of dissatisfaction with his own culture, motivating him to drive it towards civilization.
American critic Doris Sommer sees a connection between Facundo’ s ideology and Sarmiento’s readings of Fenimore Cooper.
She links Sarmiento’s remarks on modernization and culture to the American discourse of expansion and progress of the 19th century. In this context, Latin American literature has been distinguished by the protest novel, or dictator novel ; the main story is based around the dictator figure, his behaviour, domungo and the situation of the people under his regime.
Civilization and Barbarism
Writers such as Sarmiento used the power of the written word in order to criticize government, using literature as a tool, an instance of resistance and as a weapon against repression. Making use of the connection between writing and power was one of Sarmiento’s strategies.
For him, writing was intended to be a catalyst for action. Since his books often serve as vehicles for his political manifesto, Sarmiento’s writings commonly mock governments, with Facundo being the most prominent example. Toward the end ofSarmiento was exiled for his political views. Covered with bruises received the day before from unruly soldiers, he wrote in French, “On ne tue point les idees” misquoted from “on ne tire pas des coups de fusil aux idees”, which means “ideas cannot be killed by guns”.
The government decided to decipher the message, and on learning the translation, said, “So! What does this mean? His words are presented as a “code” that needs to be “deciphered”,  and unlike Sarmiento those in power are barbaric and uneducated.
Their bafflement not only demonstrates their general ignorance, but also, according to Sorensen, illustrates “the fundamental displacement which any cultural transplantation brings about”, since Argentine rural inhabitants and Rosas’s associates were unable to accept the civilized culture which Sarmiento believed would lead to progress in Argentina.
For translator Kathleen Ross, Facundo is “one of the foundational works of Spanish American literary history”.