From Johann Joseph Fux’s Gradus ad Parnassum. The Study of. Counterpoint from Johann Joseph Fux’s. The most celebrated book on counterpoint is Fux’s. The essence of the most celebrated book on counterpoint, Fux’s Gradus ad Parnassum. The most celebrated book on counterpoint is Fux’s great theoretical work. Johann Joseph Fux was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the He is most famous as the author of Gradus ad Parnassum, a treatise on.
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He is most famous as the author of Gradus ad Parnassuma treatise on counterpoint, which has become the single most influential book on the Palestrina style of Renaissance polyphony. Almost all modern courses on Renaissance counterpoint, a mainstay of college music curricula, are indebted in some degree to this work by Fux.
Gradus ad Parnassum
Relatively little is known about his early life, but likely he went to nearby Graz for music lessons. In he was accepted at the Jesuit university there, where his musical talent became apparent; and he was organist at St Moritz until Sometime during this period he must have made a trip to Italy, as evidenced by the strong influence of Arcangelo Corelli and Bolognese composers on his work of the time. By the ‘s J. Fux was in Vienna, and attracted the attention of Emperor Leopold I with some masses he composed; the emperor was sufficiently impressed by them to assist him with his career after this point.
InLeopold hired him as court composer. Fux became deputy Hofkapellmeister and Hofkapellmeister to the Habsburg court in Vienna. Fux travelled again to Italy, studying in Rome in ; it may have been here that acquired the veneration for Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina that was so consequential for music pedagogy. Fux served Leopold I until his death, and two more Habsburg emperors after that: Joseph I, and Charles VI, both of whom continued to employ him in high positions in the court.
He was famous as a composer throughout this period, his fame being eclipsed only later in the 18 th century as the Baroque style died. Fux’s eighteen operas, Elisa Vienna and Costanza e Fortezza Prague are the more well known. In addition Fux wrote Masses incl. Missa canonicaPsalms, Requiems, and instrumental works.
He came to represent the definitive and final forms of the Austro-Italian Baroque in music. The Baroque age in music in Austria ends with him. Although his music never regained favour, J.
Fux’s mastery of counterpoint influenced countless composers through his treatise Gradus ad Parnassum Haydn largely taught himself counterpoint by reading it and recommended it to the young L.
Mozart had a copy of it that he annotated. It is divided in two major parts.
In the first part, J. Fux presents a summary of the theory on Musica Speculativaor the analysis of intervals as proportions between numbers. This section is in a simple lecture style, and looks at music from a purely mathematical angle, in a theoretical tradition that goes back, through the works of Renaissance theoreticians, to the Ancient Greeks.
The Study of Counterpoint
The words of Mersenne, Cicero and Aristotle are among the references ggadus by Fux in this section. The second part, on Musica Praticais the section parnaassum this treatise where the author presents his instruction on counterpoint, fugue, double counterpoint, a brief essay on musical taste, and his ideas on composing Sacred music, writing in the Style A Cappella and in the Recitativo Style.
This part is in the form of a dialog, between a master Aloysius, Latin for Luigi, who is meant to represent Palestrina’s ideas and a student, Josephus, who represents Fux himself, a self-admitted admirer of Palestrina. At the outset Fux states his purpose: While Gradus ad Parnassum is famous as the origin of the term “species counterpoint,” Fux was not the first one to invent the idea.
In Girolamo Diruta, a composer of the Venetian school, published Il Transilvanowhich presented the Renaissance polyphonic style as a series of types: Fux’s work repeated some of Diruta’s, possibly coincidentally, since he is not known to have had a copy: In species counterpoint, as given in J. Fux, the student is to master writing counterpoint in each species before moving on to the next. The species are, in order, note against note; two notes against one; four notes against one; ligature or suspensions one note against one, but offset by half of the note value ; and “florid,” in which the other species are combined freely.
Once all the species are mastered in two voices, the species are gone through again in three voices, and then in four voices. Occasionally in modern counterpoint textbooks the third and fourth species are reversed: Fux expressed the intention of adding sections on how to write counterpoint for more than four parts, indicating parnaxsum rules in this area were to be “less rigorously observed”.
However, citing his poor health as a result of gout and age, he chose to conclude the book as it stood. Fux made a number of errors, particularly in his description of third species four notes against one in which he allowed for rux that do not belong to the 16 th century, but rather to the 18 thmodern counterpoint education is greatly indebted to Gradus ad Parnassum as the codex of the five species.
Most subsequent counterpoint textbooks have taken J. Bach which suggest that he was a source of influence on J. Bach ‘s late style and that he was regarded by contemporary commentators as a composer as well as a theorist of comparable significance to J.
Forkel of January 19, attests to J. Bach ‘s preference for actual music in the teaching of composition as against ‘the dry species of counterpoint that are given in Fux and others’, but the same letter places Fux at the head of those contemporary composers whom J.
Fux’sand Franz Benda. Bach ‘s pupil Lorenz Christoph Mizler. Bach knew the Latin original well and his personal copy has survived. Bach ‘s preoccupation with stile antico counterpoint in his late works, but not as a primer of strict counterpoint: Bach ‘s conception and reintegration of antico techniques.
Parnassun Abhandlung von der Fuge advanced J. Bach ‘s compositional technique as the locus classicus of fugal counterpoint: In this respect Marpurg relies not only on the Gradus but also on Fux’s actual compositions as in his quotation of ‘Christe eleison’ from the Missa canonica.
This usage deserves to be distinguished from the long afterlife which Fux’s Gradus enjoyed both as a composition manual and as the source of various treatises based more or less directly upon it. Johann Mattheson remarked in Der vollkommene Capellmeister that the great fugal masters known to him were J.
It is clear that Fux belonged to this distinguished gathering not as a theorist but as a composer, especially given J. Mattheson ‘s favourable account of his choral writing and his chamber duet style. Scheibe likewise, in Der critische Musikusranked J.
Telemannand others as a composer whose command of Italian style was combined with mathematical exactitude.
Oxford Composer Companion J.
Gradus ad Parnassum (Fux, Johann Joseph)
Bach Oxford University Press,Article author: London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Dover, Johann Joseph Fux: Facsimile gtadus the Vienna edition. Theorie und Kompositionspraxis’, in R. Festschrift Friedrich Blume zum Geburtstag Kassel, pp. February 13, – Vienna, Austria. Johann Joseph Fux was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era.
Johann Joseph Fux was born to a peasant family in Hirtenfeld in Styria. There are perhaps three important points of contact between Johann Joseph Fux and J. Bach’s Print copy Sonate a 4.