Global System for Mobile Communications – Railway (GSM-R) is a radio communication system offering a wide range of voice and data services needed for. This group was named “Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways. This group was named “Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways, but the most.
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Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Mobile originated, mobile terminated and cell broadcast At the same time, the need for telecommunication services was remarkably increased.
This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways, but the most common expression nowadays is Global System for Mobile communications. GSM — Global System for Mobile communications At the beginning of the s, the lack of a common mobile system was seen to be a general, worldwide problem.
This development set some requirements concerning the GSM system specifications and these requirements are built into the specifications as follows: This would lead to competition in tariffs and service provisioning and it was assumed to be the best way to ensure the rapid expansion of the GSM system; the prices of the systraa would fall and the users would find the cost of calls reducing.
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This enables the equipment from several manufacturers to coexist and hence improves the cost efficiency of the system from the operator’s point of view. In addition to the commercial demands above, some other main objectives were defined: These advantages can be summarised as follows: It was initially decided that GSM would evolve over time. With improvements in computing and radio access technology, GSM will offer continuous improvement and more services.
The GSM and GSM specifications were merged and additional supplementary services were defined, the short message service was improved and improvements in radio access and SIM cards were introduced. After the Phase 2 recommendations, GSM continues to evolve at full speed. The following list highlights some important years in the short history of GSM. Allocation of the frequencies: By December there were 13 networks operating in 7 areas.
Roaming agreements between several operators were established. By December there were 32 GSM networks operating in 18 areas.
By December there were 69 GSM networks in operation. Fax, data and SMS roaming was implemented. Telecom ’95 was held in Geneva where Nokia demonstrated In late August there were GSM networks operating in different countries, and by the end of the yearthere aystra million GSM users worldwide. GSM customers world-wide at the end of each year 1.
Because of this interface openness, the operator maintaining the network may obtain different parts of the network from different GSM network suppliers. Nowadays, GSM specifications define two truly open interfaces. The first one is between the Mobile Station and the Base Station.
These two network elements will be discussed in greater detail shstra later chapters.
gs, The system includes more than the two defined interfaces, but they are not totally open, as the system specifications had not been completed when the commercial systems were launched. When operating analogue mobile networks, experience has shown that centralised intelligence generated excessive load in the system, thus decreasing the capacity.
Referring to the interfaces, the more complicated the interfaces in use, the more intelligence is required between the interfaces in order to implement gdm the functions required.
In a GSM network, this decentralised intelligence is implemented by dividing the whole network into three separate subsystems: The NSS takes care of call control functions. Calls are always connected by and through the NSS. The NMS is the operation and maintenance related part of the network and it is needed for the control of the whole GSM network.
The network operator observes and maintains network quality and service offered through the NMS. Services and Facilities SMG2: There may not be a perfect answer, select the one you think is the most correct.
Which of the following is a requirement for the GSM specifications? The system must be compatible with existing mobile standards. The system must be standardised globally. All of the above. Which two statements in the following are generally seen as advantages of GSM over analogue networks? Data transmission is supported in the whole GSM network. International roaming is possible in GSM, but not in analogue networks.
GSM is a more secure system than analogue systems with respect to subscriber information and transmission. Which of the following is not truly an open interface? Match the year in the left-hand column with the corresponding significant GSM event in the middle column.
To provide this service, the network must be able to set up and maintain a call, which involves a number of tasks: After the transaction, the connection is terminated and normally the calling user is charged for the service he has used.
In a mobile network, however, the establishment of a call is a far more complex task, as the wireless radio connection enables the users to move at their own free will – providing they stay within the service area of the network. In practice, the network has to find solutions to three problems before it can even set up a call: Let us take an example to demonstrate these processes.
A well-known professor is travelling around the world. He decides to spend the night in a hotel in Madrid.
The first thing he will do is to contact the reception desk for registration. Basically, the reception desk is an office that supports registration. The receptionist carefully checks the passport of the professor. The passport is also a database – a small one, though – and the receptionist analyses the data recorded in systrz. She finds the basic facts, such as citizenship, identification and the name of the ssytra, and also the name of the authority that has released the document.
Registering into a hotel The professor appears to have his visa expiring soon, so the receptionist decides to call the office that has released the passport presumably an embassy. This is simple, as she knows the nationality of the professor, his identity and the number of his passport. The receptionist talks with the embassy secretary who recognises the professor instantly and advises the receptionist that everything is okay. In this example, the embassy maintains a database, which contains the basic data of all the citizens who are travelling around the world and a record of their movements.
When the registration is completed, the professor goes to his room. We can say that he is using a service provided by the hotel. As all the hotels in the world give this type of service, we can call it a basic service.
In addition to xystra basic services for example room and towels etc. These can be called supplementary services. The purpose of the two registers is to enable the Identification, Authorisation and Localisation of the customer. Let us assume that the professor checks out of Madrid and goes to Paris. He registers in another hotel, and once again, the receptionist informs the embassy in the home country.
The registration in Madrid is cancelled, registration in Paris is made, and the location data in the Home Register is brought up-to-date. We have thus made a successful location update. Let us move on and take a closer look at the mobile network.
The dystra of the professor visiting hotels bears a striking systa to the users and functions of a mobile GSM network. Within the mobile network, there are subscribers who move around and register into the service areas of networks in order to use the services provided by them.
The visitor register of the hotel and the permanent register of the embassy also have their counterparts within the GSM network. There are fixed databases that maintain basic information about their customers, including data on their current location, and temporary databases storing information about the users who are currently located in their service area. Let us start with the registration process and the various databases involved in it.
He can be practically anywhere in the world, because, thanks to a network connection through a radio link, his telephone does not need wires. Person about to use a mobile phone On the other hand, a connection through the mobile network is possible only if there is a point to point connection between the caller and the person who is called.
The SIM is a small memory device mounted on a card and contains user-specific identification. The SIM card can be taken out of one mobile equipment and inserted into another. In addition, the SIM card contains tools needed for authentication and ciphering and, depending on the type of the card, there is also storage space for messages, such as phone numbers etc.
The Home Operator of the subscriber can be anywhere in the world, but for practical reasons the subscriber chooses one of the operators in the country where he spends most of his time. Now, the new subscriber switches on his phone in an area where a local operator provides systga service.
The home operator of the subscriber also needs to know the location of the subscriber and sustra it maintains another register – just as the embassy did in our example – which is called a Home Location Register HLR.
However, in the VLR, the subscriber data is stored temporarily.