Die Nibelungen has 66 ratings and 1 review. Köksal said: YORUM;kitap, manzum-düzuazı şeklinde, bir tarihi roman olacak şekilde yeniden düzenlense, çok. Prior to the outbreak of World War I in , von Harbou had performed on stage in Friedrich Hebbel’s dramatised version of the saga dating. Cover of Friedrich Hebbel’s Die Nibelungen. Graesers Schulausgabe klassischer Werke – herausgegeben von Dr. Eduard Castle und Dr.
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Search the history nubelungen over billion web pages on the Internet. St up and electrotyped. The question of the genesis and growth of the trilogy has elsewhere been considered, but nobody until now has exhaustively examined the sources of the material and the attitude of the author in his use of it.
The present monograph has been undertaken at a time when increased attention is being directed to Hebbel and his work, and is, in my opinion, a distinctly valuable contribution to the rapidly growing amount of Hebbel literature. Since its inception many valuable additions have been made to Hebbel literature, notable beyond all others the editions of Hebbel’s works, journals, and letters by Professor R.
Werner, which have opened the way for further investigations. Even a few years ago, Hebbel had but a small circle of admirers, of critics, who appreciated the significance of his genius. Now he is begin- ning to come into his own as one of the three greatest Ger- man dramatists of the nineteenth century.
And, as the ripest product of his genius and one of the few dramatic versions of the Nibelungen saga which has found favor on the stage, 1 Hebbel’s ” Nibelungen ” offers an interesting field for investi- gation into its sources ninelungen workmanship. Car- penter and Calvin Thomas of Columbia University for assist- ance and encouragement in this work.
I desire, also, to express my thanks to Professor Richard M. Norse Myth and Saga 55 3. Treatment of Woman 3. The Mythical and Mystical Friedrich Hebbels Briefwechsel, Bamberg. C Nibelunglied, manuscript C, Zarncke edition.
Fouque, Der Held des Nordens. Frankl, Zur Biographic Friedrich Hebbels. J Jonsson, Edda edition. R Hebbel, Kriemhilds Rache. Kuh, Biographic Friedrich Hebbels. Kulke, Erinnerungen heebbel Friedrich Hebbel. Nn Hebbel, Die Nibelungen. T Hebbel, Siegfrieds Tod. Tgb Hebbels Tagebiicher, Werner. Wagner, Der Ring des Nibelungen. Wuttke, Der deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegenwart.
The references to the various manuscripts of Hebbel’s ” Nibelungen ” are the same as those used by Werner, W. But this work is only an isolated production, and does not show a general interest in the old material. Foreign rule, foreign taste and influence, deadened the national self-consciousness, and it required an awakened spirit of inde- pendence to arouse interest in the great national saga.
Not nielungen the Norse songs and sagas were being edited, and the Middle High German version of the Nibelungen story had been published in complete form, did the material again attract a dramatic poet to the work of re-creation. But since Fouque”, inpublished in Friedrich Schlegel’s Europa, the dramatic scene, “Der gehornte Siegfried in der Schmiede,” 3 not a decade of the nineteenth century has been without its versions of the niblungen. Most of these attempts at rejuvenation have been in the 1 Printed in Nuremberg about No other story has so widely attracted and enlisted the creative efforts nibe,ungen German poets as that of the Nibelungs, no other poem has aroused so greatly the interest of scholars, writers, and public, as the Nibelungenlied.
The cause for the tremendous and last- ing impulse towards this half-buried saga treasure is not far to seek. The reawakened national consciousness sought national material; the Nibelungenlied is a poem with but few positive historical features, yet absolutely belonging to the race, with setting and characters truly German; a poem which invited the research of students and which aroused the creative interest of poets with the desire to remould the old saga into a form that should appeal to a modern audience.
And since most of the adapters recognized the dramatic spirit of the old epic, and, in- deed, of the old saga as a whole, and since ehbbel stage offers the most direct form of appeal to the public, nearly all the attempts to recast and arrange the material have been in dramatic form. Even after the northern versions of the saga had become available through translation, the majority of the dramatic poets based their work upon the southern version as more direct in its appeal to people of the nineteenth century.
A list of the various attempts to raise the buried Nibelungen hoard to modern view is remarkable rather for its length than for the number of important names which are included among the authors. Poetasters as well as poets, and unskilled more than skilled hands, have tried their powers to lift the alluring treasure. Even now, scarcely more than a half-dozen of the various attempts are known as worthy poetical productions; a century from now the numerous other versions will at most arouse an historical interest on the part of the investigator.
The names of Fouque”, Wagner, Geibel, Hebbel, Jordan, and Morris will always be connected with the part that they played in re- juvenating the old saga, but of these real literary and human interest will probably continue to attach alone to the music- drama of Richard Wagner, “Der Ring des Nibelungen,” to the trilogy of Friedrich Hebbel, “Die Nibelunhen and to the epic 3 of William Morris, “The Story of Sigurd the Volsung and the Nibslungen of the Niblungs.
Full text of “Hebbel’s Nibelungen, its sources, method, and style”
Wagner, always with the thought of music uppermost, wished to go back to Germanic origins for hfbbel saga material, to express simple man in his relation to Gods and nature ; and he aimed to make the whole story evolve from his favorite theme, redemption through love. Morris was solely inspired by the Norse sources, which he knew so thoroughly. He was imbued with the spirit of Norse nlbelungen and saga-lore, and he attempted to interpret and enlarge its greatest story for modern readers, basing his work almost exclusively on the Volsunga-saga.
Heb- bel’s undertaking took for its basis the South German saga form.
For the pure drama, he felt that the figures of the Middle High German epic were nearest to a modern audience in human in- terest, and his sole desire was to interpret them. The purpose of the investigation, the results of which are set down in the following pages, has been to trace Hebbel’s sources in the composition of the “Nibelungen,” and to point out the nature and extent of his indebtedness, his attitude toward his material, and the use which he made of it.
Hebbel’s own careful letters and his exact record of details in his journal must always be of first importance in studying the origin of his works and the time and manner of their composition. Pro- fessor Werner, in hfbbel excellent introduction to nlbelungen critical edition of the “Nibelungen,” has carefully given the account of Hebbel’s progress in the composition of the work, so that it is necessary here only to summarize the genesis and growth of the trilogy, and to add a few details concerning its development from a youthful dream to a lasting monument of Hebbel’s creative genius.
Not until a goodly number of dramas owned Hebbel as their author, not until he had seen Christine Enghaus’ representation of Chriemhild in Raupach’s “Nibelungen-Hort,” did he seri- ously think jibelungen the work of production, and more than six years elapsed between the time when Hebbel wrote the first words of the “Nibelungen,” and the date of its publication. Although the period of composition lasted from October to March 22d,the nibelunyen work of production covered nibflungen space of but hevbel few months.
As in the case of most of Hebbel’s creative work, the composition of the “Nibelungen” was done at fever heat; periods of rapid and enthusiastic achievement were followed by intervals of lassitude and inertia, or by periods of equally in- tense work on other material, when the “Nibelungen” would be neglected and almost forgotten.
In the course of his progress on the work, his plans changed as to the nature and length of his composition, and it was only after he had been forced to see the lack of feasibility of doing justice to his material in a shorter space, after he had completed “Siegfrieds Tod,” that he felt himself compelled to decide on a trilogy.
By the i8th of February,he had completed what is now the Prologue and “Siegfrieds Tod. In his journal for that date he recorded that he looked with an absolutely quiet aesthetic conscience at the whole, as well as at the detail, and he recalled that moment when he first drank in the glories of the old epic, a moment which he later so beautifully recorded in his dedication to the trilogy.
Suddenly “Kriemhilds Rache” opened before him in startling clearness, and he hastened home to begin the work with such a storm of dramatic impulse as he had not experienced since the writing of “Genoveva,” 2 and which made the work of production his greatest happiness on earth. It did not loose 1 Tgb. On the icth nigelungen April, he sent it to the Princess Hohenlohe, whose judgment he awaited with a real anxiety born of his respect for her critical insight, 8 and on the ist of May he despatched it with a letter to Franz von Dingelstedt, who had long looked forward to the presentation of the play in Weimar.
Until then Hebbel’s wife and the princess were the only persons who knew this third part, “Kriemhilds Rache. Since now, besides this, I have the most advantageous material, I should even look toward immediate success with some confidence, if the literary criticism of the day were not governed by principles which stand in the most decided opposition to all poetry.
Houben, Vossische Zeitung, Jan. His journal tells nothing of the pres- entation, until the closing entry for the year, when he recorded the pronounced success of the first two pieces, “the greatest marks of honor on the part of the court, about which the letters to my wife contain details. He had arrived in time to attend the last rehearsal, and to correct certain mistakes of his copyist, Lettfass. After the finale, I was summoned by the Grand Duke to his box, and he thanked me heartily, as did the Grand Duchess.
The effect was extraordinary ; the Grand Duke was a most attentive listener and enthusiastic in his praise.
Again, the closing entry in his journal for tells us of this perform- ance. The Grand Duke had directly appealed to the Emperor, at Liszt’s suggestion, and had obtained by this means leave of absence for Christine Hebbel to play in Weimar.
The effect of 1 Bw. At the first, he felt that he was not yet in the kitchen, but only in the courtyard where the vegetables are hrbbel ; and he had a “feeling of look- ing over a proof-sheet that teems with printer’s errors, which for the most part have no sense, but sometimes, too, an ex- tremely ludicrous sense, at which the author himself has to laugh. That depends upon whether the piece is given time to justify itself, and I could almost believe in the good will of the directorate.
He felt that he would have been a second Saint Sebastian, for he was as sensitive to looks as to darts, and he could not be on the stage without wearing evening clothes and kid gloves.
This appealed to him the less, since it would show too great confidence and assurance, and since the coat would turn into a veritable shirt of Nessus if it was not wanted by the third or fourth act.
So he took his usual walk, and waited at home until his wife and daughter, with Glaser, came and announced a complete success. On the 2oth, he saw the piece himself, and joyfully reported in his journal a crowded house, “great attention, not nibslungen laughter 1 Tgb.
But Hebbel was again suspicious of the good will of the management, and angry at Laube for declaring that the “Nibelungen” was no drama, and was only retained on the stage on account of the portrayer of Kriemhild. Hebbel recorded no further perform- ance than the tenth on the i8th of June, although the first two parts were produced again, once in September, and twice in November, i 3 But the poet did not live to see a perform- ance of the entire trilogy upon the Vienna stage.
Hebbel’s delight and surprise hdbbel the stage success of his nlbelungen work found expression in hebbrl letter to a critic friend in which he wrote of its reception in Weimar, Schwerin, Berlin, and Vienna, and added: Is it the hebel, healthy atmosphere which still streams from the old epic into my rendering? Is the national sense at last awaken- ing in the German nation, and making it love to tarry with the struggles and combats of its ancestors?
Eine Tragodie von Friedrich Hebbel. Erste Scene,” in ; that is, lines of the present drama, and Westermann’s Jahrbuch der illustrierten Deutschen Monatshe]te for the year had printed “Die Werbung.
In OctoberHebbel made a trip to Hamburg and there, after considerable delay, sold the “Nibelungen” to Campe with the condition that Hebbel re- tained the right to include the drama in the complete edition of 1 Tgb. Holzhausen, to whom Hebbel gave the manuscript in December On the hdbbel of January, he wrote to Campe that he had just corrected the first sheets of “Kriemhilds Rache.
On the 29th of February, he sent to Campe hebbwl ” prologue or epilogue,” which the hebbrl had demanded, but which was left unprinted. This is presumably the foreword, “An den geneigten Leser,” which appears in all collected editions of Hebbel’s works.
The printing was at this time entirely finished, and Hebbel wrote to Campe with mock delight his joy in being at last author of a two-volume work.
The “Nibelungen” called forth a storm of criticism, par- ticularly after the work appeared hi book form, but it won over to Hebbel some of the critics who had formerly been most severe in their attitude toward him. In Weimar sounded the first praise, since in Weimar the piece first became public. The Grand Duke was enthusiastic in his expressions hebvel admiration to Hebbel: I say, Vogel, inbelungen is a fellow, hebbell could crush your ribs to pieces.
Not enough that you pick out of the broad epic shell the dramatic kernel clean and round, you assimilate so forcefully the subject which still lies far from us that it ceases to be alien to us; we can live with these knights, we understand them, they are even stageworthy. Thus even the theatrical effect is beyond all doubt; a few unimportant omissions and the piece can be staged.
Yes, you have treated the question- able incident of the bridal-night mystery, a terror for all modest muses, with infinitely greater tenderness, discretion, and purity than all your pious and ‘temperate’ predecessors.
He feared that Kriemhild, from the standpoint of the theatre public, would lose in interest on the second evening, while she stood in hebbek foreground on the first.
Then, too, the lack of progressive action, of movement, of tension, would be pointed out. But he recognized that a con- clusion could be nothing but a conclusion, and he hoped much 1 Nachl.
For to-day, I confine myself simply to an expression of my heartiest thanks to you for the great pleasure which you have given me.