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The lubricant to be tested is spread on the plate, and it is exposed to the ambient air oxygen during the tests. The base composition for these hydraulic fluids consists of at least one natural triglyceride and one anti-oxidant additive. The most preferred among these triglycerides of vegetable origin, under normal temperatures of use, are described to be those that contain esterified oleic acid in a jrgalube in excess of 50 per cent by weight of the total quantity of fatty acids Table 1.
A hydraulic fluid made of a base composition according to claim 5, characterized in that it has the following composition:.
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Such oils, the iodine number of which is usually higher than and which are used i. Alkylated tertiary amines as high-temperature antioxidants for ester base lubricants.
The viscosity-to-temperature ratio characteristic of each oil can be characterized by means of the empiric viscosity index VIthe numerical value of which is the higher the less the viscosity of the oil concerned changes with a change in temperature. The above data indicate that the said triglycerides have many properties which are of advantage especially in hydraulic fluids.
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The additives used irgaluhe However, it is to be kept in mind that applicable triglyceride oils differ from rape seed oil only in respect of the composition of the fatty acids esterified with glycerol, which difference comes out as different pour points and viscosities of the oils. Combination of phosphate based additives and sulfonate salts for hydraulic fluids and lubricating compositions.
In the same test also the volumetric efficiency of the hydraulic systems 2 and 3 was recorded during the test period and the results iraglube given in the following table 8.
In the test two new identical hydraulic driven mining loaders were used. The lubricative properties of a hydraulic fluid based on the triglyceride composition of the invention were tested by using the testing method described in the following example 4.
The following Table 7 gives the viscosity of the oils after a prolonged time in operation. The lubricating properties were compared also by using a gear system, which test is described in the following Example 5. The oxidation causes also foaming of the fluid, the filtration properties of the fluid are decreased, and the higher water solubility causes problems in the hydraulic system.
The film failure temperature is a measure of the oxidation resistance of the oil. In addition to the basic composition the hydraulic fluid according to the invention may also comprise other constituents such as:. Examples of irgalubf which belong to the abovemention- ed groups can be named as follows:. A hydraulic fluid made of a base composition according to claim 5, characterized in that it has the following composition: US USA en It is characteristic of all of these oily triglycerides that their viscosities change on change in temperature to a lesser extent than the viscosities of hydrocarbon basic oils.
The fluids were tested jrgalube an apparatus according to the test method ASTM D by introducing into a pressure vessel ml of the fluid to be tested.
Rape seed oil has been considered as an example of the monomeric triglyceride oils used in the hydraulic fluids in accordance with the specification GB 2which rape seed oil is also obtained from the subspecies Brassica campestris and which oil, in its present-day commercial form, contains little or no erucic acid, docosenoic acid.
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The viscosity indexes of triglycerides are clearly higher than those of hydrocarbon oils with no additives, so that triglycerides are to their nature iggalube multigrade oils. In order to avoid these problems caused by oxidation the working temperature of the hydraulic system is to be kept lower than when hydrocarbon based oils are used.
One indication of the resistance towards oxidation of oils is also their ability to keep the lubrication properties in higher temperatures.
Alkylene oxide adducts of phosphosulfurized N- hydroxyalkyl alkenylsuccinimides. N,N’-disalicylidene-1,2-propenylenediamine; N,N’-bis beta-3,5-ditertbutylhydroxyphenylpropiono hydrazide. The fraction of the anti-oxidant additives is selected preferably among hindered phenolics and aromatic amines, but can be completed by compounds selected from metal salts of dithioacids, phosphites, sulfides, amides, non-aromatic amines, hydrazides and triazols.
The triglyceride may also, according to the teaching of the specification GB 2contain a small quantity of an alkatrienylic acid residue, but a larger quantity is detrimental, because it promotes oxidation of the triglyceride oil. This accounts for the superb ability of triglycerides to be adsorbed on metal faces as very thin adhering films. This fact is evident from the results of the following example 1.
Of the rape seed oils mentioned in the table, the first one eruca has been obtained from a sub-species that has a high content of erucic acid C A hydraulic fluid made of a base composition according to any of the preceeding claims 1 to 5, characterized in that in order to comply with the ISO VG 46 viscosity class requirement it contains about 77 percent by weight of the base composition and about 23 percent by weight of pentaerythritol ester.
The following table 12 gives one example of adjusting possibilities. A1 Designated state s: Preferred amount of the anti-oxidant s in the fluid is 1. The petroleum-based hydraulic fluids involve, however, a number of environmental and health risks.
In this example the stability of the hydraulic fluids against oxidative degradation was tested.