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The brothers were born in the town of Hanau in Hesse-Cassel now Germany and spent most of their childhood in the nearby town of Steinau. Their father’s death in impoverished the family and affected the brothers for many years after.
They attended the University of Marburg where they began a lifelong dedication to researching the early history of German language and literature, including German folktales. The rise of Romanticism during the 18th century had revived interest in traditional folk stories, which to the Grimms and their colleagues represented a pure form of national literature and culture. The Brothers Grimm established a methodology for collecting and recording folk stories that became the basis for folklore studies.
Grjmm the first edition grummand the seventh and final edition ofthey revised their collection many times, so that it grew from stories to more than Individually, they published a large body of linguistic and literary scholarship. Many of Grimms’ folk tales have enjoyed enduring popularity. The tales are available in more than languages and have been adapted by filmmakers including Lotte Reiniger and Walt Disneywith films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Sleeping Beauty.
During the s and 40s, the tales were used as propaganda by the Third Reich ; later in the 20th century psychologists such as Bruno Bettelheim reaffirmed the value of the work, in spite of the cruelty and violence in original versions of some of the tales, which the Grimms eventually sanitized. The family became prominent members of the community, residing in a large home surrounded by fields.
Biographer Jack Zipes writes that the brothers were happy in Steinau and “clearly fond of country life”.
InPhilipp Grimm died of pneumonia, plunging his family into poverty, and they were forced to relinquish their servants and large house. Dorothea depended on financial support from her father and sister, first lady-in-waiting at the court of William I, Elector of Hesse. Jacob was the eldest living son, and he was forced at age 11 to assume adult responsibilities shared with Wilhelm for the next two years.
The two boys adhered to the advice of their grandfather, who continually exhorted them to be industrious. The brothers left Steinau and their family in to attend the Friedrichsgymnasium in Kasselwhich had been arranged and paid for by their aunt. By then, they were without a male provider their grandfather died that yearforcing them to rely entirely on each other, and they became exceptionally close.
The two brothers differed in temperament; Jacob was introspective and Wilhelm was outgoing although he often suffered from ill-health.
The Brothers Grimm () – IMDb
Sharing a strong work ethic, they excelled in their studies. In Kassel, they became acutely aware of their inferior social status relative to “high-born” students who received more attention. Still, each brother graduated at the head of his class: Jacob in and Wilhelm in After graduation from the Friedrichsgymnasiumthe brothers attended the University of Marburg.
The university was small with about students and there they became painfully aware that students of lower social status were not treated equally.
They were disqualified from admission because of their social standing and had to request dispensation to study law. Wealthier students received stipends, but the brothers were excluded even from tuition aid. Their poverty kept them from student activities or university social life; ironically, however, their outsider status worked in their favor, and they pursued their studies with extra vigor. The brothers were inspired by their law professor Friedrich von Savignywho awakened in them an interest in history and philologyand they turned to studying medieval German literature.
Through Savigny and his circle of friends— German romantics such as Clemens Brentano and Ludwig Achim von Arnim —the Grimms were introduced to the ideas of Johann Gottfried Herderwho thought that German literature should revert to simpler forms, which he defined as Volkspoesie natural poetry as opposed to Kunstpoesie artistic poetry. Jacob was still financially responsible for his mother, brother, and younger siblings inso he accepted a post in Paris as research assistant to von Savigny.
On his return to Marburg, he was forced to abandon his grkmm to support the family, whose poverty was so extreme that food was often scarce. He took a job with the Hessian War Commission. In grkmm letter written to his aunt at imaos time, Wilhelm wrote of their circumstances, “We five people eat only three portions and only once a day”. Jacob found full-time employment in when he was appointed court librarian to the King of Westphalia and went on to become librarian in Kassel.
He arranged and paid for his brother Ludwig ‘s studies at art school and for Wilhelm’s extended visit to Halle to seek treatment for heart and respiratory ailments, following which Wilhelm joined Jacob as librarian in Kassel. According to Jack Zipes, at this point “the Grimms were unable to devote all their energies to their research and did not have a clear idea about the significance of collecting folk tales in this initial phase.
During their employment as librarians—which paid little but afforded them ample time for research—the brothers experienced a irmas period of scholarship, publishing a number of books between and InWilhelm married Henriette Dorothea Dortchen Wild, a long-time family friend and one of a group who supplied them with stories. Jacob never married but continued to grim in the household with Wilhelm and Dortchen. During the next seven years, the brothers continued to research, write, and publish.
The two brothers taught German studies at the university, becoming well-respected in the newly established discipline. The s were a period of political upheaval and peasant revolt in Germany, leading to the movement for democratic reform known as Young Germany.
For refusing to sign the oath, the seven professors were dismissed and three were deported from Hanover, including Jacob who went to Kassel. He was later joined there by Wilhelm, Dortchen, and their four children. The brothers were without income in and again in extreme financial difficulty, so they began what became a lifelong project: Grinm brothers again depended on friends and supporters for financial assistance and influence in finding employment.
In addition to teaching posts, the Academy of Sciences offered them stipends to continue their research. Once they had established their household in Berlin, they directed their efforts towards the work on the German dictionary and continued to publish their research. After the Revolutions of in the German statesthe brothers were elected to the civil parliament. Jacob became a prominent member of the National Assembly at Mainz. In the late s, Jacob resigned his university position and saw the publication of The History of the German Language Geschichte der deutschen Sprache.
Wilhelm continued at his university post until After retiring from teaching, the brothers devoted themselves to the German Dictionary for the rest of their lives.
He continued work on the dictionary until his own death in Zipes writes of the Grimm brothers’ dictionary and grim, their very large body of work: The rise of romanticismRomantic nationalismand trends in valuing popular culture in the early 19th century revived interest in fairy tales, which had declined since their lateth-century peak.
They collected and published tales as a reflection of German cultural identity. In the first collection, though, they included Charles Perrault ‘s tales, published in Paris in and written for the literary salons of an aristocratic French audience. Scholar Lydie Jean says that Perrault created a myth that his tales came from the common people and reflected existing folklore to justify ggrimm them—even though many of them were original.
Versions of tales differ from region to region, “picking up bits and pieces of local culture and lore, drawing a turn of phrase from a song or another story and fleshing out characters with features taken from the audience imaos their performance.
However, as Tatar explains, the Grimms appropriated stories as being uniquely German, such as ” Little Red Riding Hood “, which had existed in many versions and regions throughout Europe, because they believed that such stories were reflections of Germanic culture. When Jacob returned to Marburg irmwos Paris intheir friend Brentano sought the brothers’ help in adding to his collection of folk tales, at which time the brothers began to gather tales in an organized fashion.
These tales were heavily modified in transcription, and many had roots in previously written sources. It is the earliest extant version of the Grimms’ collection and has become a valuable source to scholars studying the development of the Grimms’ collection from the time of its inception. The manuscript was published in and again in The brothers gained a reputation for collecting tales from peasants, although many tales came from middle-class or aristocratic acquaintances.
Wilhelm’s wife Dortchen Wild and her family, with their nursery maid, told the brothers some of the grimmm well-known tales, such as ” Hansel and Gretel ” and ” Sleeping Beauty “.
Despite her middle-class background, in the first English translation she was characterized as a peasant and given the name Gammer Gretel. According to scholars such as Ruth Bottigheimer and Maria Tatarsome of the tales probably originated in written form gri,m the medieval period with writers such as Straparola and Boccacciobut were modified in the 17th century and again rewritten by the Grimms.
Moreover, Tatar writes that the brothers’ goal of preserving and shaping the tales as something uniquely German at a time of French occupation was a form of “intellectual resistance” and, in so doing, they established a methodology for collecting and preserving folklore that set the model followed later by writers throughout Europe during periods gromm occupation.
From onward, the brothers added to the collection. Jacob established the framework, maintained through many iterations; from until his death, Wilhelm assumed sole responsibility for editing and rewriting the tales.
He made the tales stylistically similar, added dialogue, removed pieces “that might detract from a rustic tone”, improved the plots, and incorporated psychological motifs.
He believes that Wilhelm “gleaned” bits from old Germanic faithsNorse mythology, Roman and Greek mythologyand biblical stories that he reshaped.
Over irmais years, Wilhelm worked extensively on the prose and expanded and added detail to the stories, to the point that many grew to twice the length they were in the earliest published editions. Afterhe began writing for children children were not initially considered the primary audienceadding entirely new tales or adding new elements to existing tales, elements that were often strongly didactic. Some changes were made in light of unfavorable reviews, particularly from those who objected that not all the tales were suitable for children because of scenes of violence and sexuality.
The Grimms’ legacy contains legends, novellasand folk stories, the vast majority of which were not intended as children’s tales.
Von Armin was deeply concerned about the content of some of the tales, such as those that showed children being eaten, and suggested that they be removed. Instead, the brothers added an introduction with cautionary advice that parents steer children toward age-appropriate stories. Despite von Armin’s unease, none of the tales were eliminated from the collection, in the brothers’ belief that all the tales were of value and reflected inherent cultural qualities.
For example, in the Grimms’ original version of ” Snow White “, the Queen is Little Snow White’s mother, not her stepmother, yet even so she orders her Huntsman to kill Snow White her biological grimmm and bring home the child’s lungs and liver so that she can eat them.
Estátua dos irmãos Grimm em Hanau – Picture of Brothers Grim Monument, Hanau – TripAdvisor
The story ends with the Queen mother dancing at Snow White’s wedding wearing a pair of red-hot iron shoes that kill her. To some extent, the cruelty and violence may have been a reflection of medieval culture from which the tales originated, such as scenes of witches burning, as described in ” The Six Swans “. Tales with a spinning motif are broadly represented in the collection. In her essay “Tale Spinners: Submerged Voices in Grimms’ Fairy Tales”, children’s literature scholar Bottigheimer explains that these stories reflect the degree to which spinning was crucial in the life of women in the 19th century and earlier.
Spinning, and particularly the spinning of flaxwas commonly performed in the home by women. Many stories begin by describing the occupation of a main character, as in “There once was a miller”, yet spinning is never mentioned as an occupation, probably because the brothers did not consider grim an occupation.
Instead, spinning grmim a communal activity, frequently performed in a Spinnstube spinning grrimma place where grimmm most likely kept the oral traditions alive by telling stories while engaged in tedious work.
The tales were also criticized for being insufficiently German, which influenced the tales that the brothers included as well as their use of language. Some critics such as Alistair Hauke use Jungian analysis to say that the deaths of the brothers’ father and irmao are the reason for the Grimms’ tendency to idealize and excuse fathers, as well as the predominance of female villains in the tales, such as the wicked stepmother and stepsisters in “Cinderella”, but this disregards the fact that they irmaoos collectors, not authors of the tales.
The collection includes 41 tales about siblings, which Zipes says are representative of Jacob and Wilhelm. Many of the sibling stories follow a simple plot where the characters lose a home, work industriously at a specific task irmaod, in the end, find a new home.
The Large editions contained all the tales collected to date, extensive annotations, and scholarly notes written by the brothers; the Small editions had only 50 tales and were intended for children. Jacob and Wilhelm’s younger brother Emil Grimm illustrated the Small editions, adding Christian symbolism to the drawings, such as depicting Cinderella’s mother as an angel, and adding a Bible to the bedside table of Little Red Riding Hood’s grandmother. The first volume was published in with 86 folk tales,  and a second volume with 70 additional tales was published late in dated on the title page ; together, the two volumes and their tales are considered the first of the Large annotated editions.
The seventh and final edition irmoas contained tales— irmas folk tales and eleven legends.