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Správa na úseku zaměstnanosti – Ministerstvo vnitra České republiky
Hu Ebner Karla Download Report. Published on Apr View Download In particular, it explicates Toyens construction of gender and eroticism within the contexts of early twentieth-century Czech feminism and sex reformism, the interwar Prague avant-garde, and Prague and Paris surrealism. Toyens interest in sexuality and eroticism, while unusual in its extent and expression, pilitika intimately related to her historical and geographic position as an urban Czech forming her artistic personality during first a period of economic boom, avant-garde optimism, increased opportunities for women, and sex reformism, and then a period of economic crisis, restriction of womens employment, social conservatism, and tension between the subconscious and the socialist realist.
Toyens ambiguously gendered selfpresentation, while again unusual, needs to be considered in light of her enthusiastic reception within three predominantly male avant-garde groups Devtsil, Prague surrealism, and Paris surrealism.
I stress that the mezinridn and cultural environment of her childhood and youth created an atmosphere that enabled her to pursue lifelong personal interests and obsessions in a manner that was krek public for a female artist of her generation. As a case study of one artist working within a specific avant-garde movement, this project contributes to critical re-evaluation of surrealism, the Central European contribution to modernism, and the role of female artists in the avant-garde. This intervention in the history of ivsurrealism makes its intellectual contribution by changing our perception of the movement, giving vivid evidence of the Prague groups difference from and meinrodn on the Krj group, and presenting a more complex and nuanced view of womens role in and treatment by surrealism.
This dissertation employs a mixed methodology that combines investigation of historical context with aspects of feminist, psychoanalytic, iconographic, and semiotic approaches. No previous study of Toyen or the Czech interwar avant-garde has been done in this manner.
Perhaps the best place to begin would be well before I was born, with the Odvody and Kufner families of Merkln, who befriended my father and began what is now over sixty years of Czech-American friendship.
All my life I have had the benefit of what could be considered a mezinrodb adoptive family overseas. Tom and Jana Odvody were like a third set of grandparents, and I am sorry krei could not live to see me write about their famous contemporary. Their extended family is a wonderful and interesting group of people, of whom I must specifically mention Jana Strakov, Zdenk Straka, and their daughter Zuzana; Hana Petraov, Mila Petra, their older daughter Jitka, her husband Milan Novotn, and the twins Tom and Tereza; the late Pepik Kufner and his wife Marie Kufnerov; and Alenka teigerov and Zdenk teiger, who actually live in a house designed by Otakar Novotn and mezinordn have created a garden to rival the house.
Along the way, other Czech friends have come into my life, including the late Vra evikov and her son Milan evk; Martina Bejsovcov and her parents; the Kudla family; tpanka Korytov-Magstadt and her son Michael; and Vra Krekanov.
Also very much present in my mind are the friends and faculty of my undergraduate life at UCSC. While they are too numerous to list in full, I must note Audrey Stanley, Elaine Yokoyama and Norvid Roos, Tom Corbett, and Kathy Foley as the faculty members who got to see me in both my best and worst moments and kept encouraging me along Audrey and Kathy xieventually wrote me letters of recommendation long after the average person would have forgotten who I was. Bruce Kawins film classes had a strong effect both on my writing and on my obsession with digging up the cultural context for the avant-garde, and I first wrote about art history for Barry Katz.
The senior projects done by my friends Brad Clark and Paul Haxo impressed me and fed my ambitions to do equally interesting things, and while I am not sure either of them quite understands what possesses me to kfej a PhD in art history, each of them has been known to encourage me now and then.
David Van Ness gave his enthusiastic and tireless support of my early research in feminist art history and my decision to apply to graduate school. The long-time members of my writing group, Betty Dietz, Denise Minor, Kathleen White, Gabriella West, and Janet Kornblum, were also very supportive of my turn towards art history despite the fact that our group was intended as a fiction group.
At University of Pittsburgh, my department has been extraordinarily pleasant and supportive, and any praise I can offer would probably be insufficient. I had really not expected that anyone would want to direct a dissertation on a topic so little known politikz most American art historians, but Barbara McCloskey is an adventurous person and divined that Toyen would keep both of us interested.
She has done her best to give advice when needed, leave me alone to work most of the time, and from time to time does succumb to the lure of an hour or two of entertaining conversation. Kirk Savage and Terry Smith have been very supportive of my work from the start, and Helena Goscilo has done her best to persuade me that my academic prose isxiinot quite as leaden as it seems to me.
Martin Votruba let me practice my Czech in his Slovak class, despite his natural desire for Popitika supremacy. Irina Livezeanu, who can always track me down at our neighborhood cafe, has given many useful pointers on proposals. And then there are the anonymous faculty members who voted with remarkable frequency to give me money! Whoever they are, I am most grateful that they liked my grant proposals.
Hu Ebner Karla 2008
In my department, Ann Sutherland Harris always cheers on my investigations of Toyens erotica; Anne Weis agreed to be one of my Fulbright interviewers; Kathy Linduff almost makes me regret I am not working on ancient China; and Drew Armstrong has not only given most of my French translations a rigorous eye but will probably be responsible for my choking to death laughing while eating a cake made in the form of a scale model of the Pittsburgh courthouse.
Our support staff cant be left out either; Linda Hicks and Emily Lilly in History ;olitika Art and Architecture should be worshipped as divine beings, as they can certainly solve all mortal academic problems that we bring to them.
Our art librarians treat the grad students with almost as much solicitude as they do the rare books, lrej Marcia Rostek in particular has done her best to make my hours in the library resemble some sort of Shangri-la despite the fact that I cannot figure out our shelving system.
My fellow grad students cant be left out either. Kristen Harkness keeps me from getting either too uppity or too depressed. April Eisman and Cornelie Piok-Zanon shared some meinrodn their proposal- and prospectus-writing secrets, as did Cindy Persinger, who has also been a comrade in our final throes of dissertation.
Kate Dimitrova and Sheri Lullo have shared part of the final-xiiithroes process mezinfodn me as well. Annie Krieg and Travis Nygard have always been good friends. In fact, the vast kre of the grads in History of Art and Architecture keep one another afloat with good cheer, kvetching, snacks, and favors of one mezindodn or another, and I am glad to have been part of so amiable a group.
But thats by no means all. This largesse enabled me to spend the summers of and improving my Czech in Prague, and to spend researching in the Czech Mezinnrodn. By the time I left, the librarians at the Nrodn knihovna in Prague were well acquainted with my research interests and went out of their way to hunt for mislaid books for me. In California, John Smalley, Cesar Love, and Dirk van Nouhuys among many other friends mezinrocn encouraged me in my strange academic and other pursuits.
And from Sydney, Kreh, the remarkable Paul K. In Houston, Mary and Roy Cullen and their friends were warm and enthusiastic in sharing their Czech modernist collections with me. Right here at home, the Spotted Pair Calypso Spots and Orion keep me functional and covered in loose fur, as did Orions predecessor, the stalwart black Holland Lop George. Although rabbits dont actually care about dissertations, and Orion believes that old drafts should be eaten, they do understand that grad students need lots of attention.
Finally, my family has been pretty enthusiastic about the whole adventure right from the start.
My brother, historian Todd Huebner, copyedited my manuscript as if it were about to go to press and has improved many of my Czech translations. Although he advised me to cut some of the quotations, he and Drew persuaded me that certain bits of strangeness absolutely had to be included in the final draft.
And my parents remain mysteriously certain that having a third PhD in the family could be at all a good thing.
Domácí – Zprávy –
I am sure I have forgotten some people and institutions who deserve a prominent place here, but I will be happy to thank them in some other way if properly reminded. What remains of all this? He added, One would gain only a partial impression of Toyens universe if one attempted to reconstruct it solely on the basis of her paintings.
In distinction to all those today who think of painting solely in terms of a riot of colour, Toyen has always insisted very strongly on the importance of drawing, not only as the framework without which a construction12Andr Breton, Surrealism and Painting, trans.
Simon Watson Taylor London: City Gallery Prague and Argo, Why did she attract this politikx of extravagant attention from two major poets? What made her significant both as an artist and as a person not just to Halas and Breton but to numerous other Czech and French avant-gardists from the late twenties on? How did she achieve consistent recognition by her peers during a time when women artists were usually not taken very seriously, especially by the avant-garde?
Why did her personality and her vision capture so many imaginations? Surrealism continues to be a major representational and cultural mode in Czech culture, but only now, post-Communism, are more precise understandings of ,rej surrealism emerging. Toyen Marie ermnov, was, like Halas, a member of Devtsil, and later became a founding member of the interwar Prague surrealist group.
Though a respected and successful member of the interwar Czech avant-garde, for political reasons she was an anti-Stalin Communist she would spend the second half of her career in relative obscurity in Politikx, known best to other surrealists. Her importance within the movement has been repeatedly acknowledged by other membersJos Pierre called her the least acknowledged of the great pollitika painters.
One of the things she pooitika particularly well, however, was to invent haunting images of strangely spectral, disembodied women and girls; and one of the mezinrovn she is particularly known for is her erotic imagery in which womens bodies mrej very much present and mens, if present at all, are only shown poltika part.
Barrons, Orej showing how Toyens work grew from her early life in Hapsburg and First Republic Prague, how this work both conformed to and resisted surrealist norms, and how collage aesthetic and iconographic choices give meaning to her imagery, I provide a richer reading of the varieties of surrealist approaches to sexuality and the erotic, poligika offer a deeper understanding of her work and oplitika contexts in which it was created.
Susan Rubin Suleiman, 5 No movement more easily defeats the attempt to see it autonomously [than surrealism]Jack Spector, Though Toyen is the subject of this dissertation, it is neither a biography nor a study of her entire oeuvre.
Instead, I seek to illuminate her construction of gender and eroticism. Placing Women in French Literature Spector, Surrealist Art and Writing Cambridge University Press,9. Certain aspects of Toyens life mezinrrodn are of special interest in this regard. Toyens interest in sexuality and eroticism, while certainly unusual in its extent and expression, is intimately related to her historical and geographic position as an urban Czech forming her artistic personality during first a period of economic boom, avant-garde optimism, increased opportunities for women, and sex reformism, and then a period of economic crisis, restriction of womens employment, social mezinrofn, and tension between the subconscious and the socialist realist.
Toyens ambiguously gendered self-presentation, while again meinrodn, needs to be considered in light of her enthusiastic reception within three predominantly male avant-garde groups Devtsil, Prague ktej, and Paris surrealism. While it is not usually possible to link individual works to specific historical events or to popular visual culture, especially prior toI stress that the social and cultural environment of her childhood and youth created an atmosphere that enabled her to pursue lifelong personal interests and obsessions in a manner that was unusually public for a female artist of her generation.
Any study of a surrealistfor that matter any study of a member of the interwar Czech avant-gardeignores something vital if it does not take into account the larger social and artistic milieu. While this of course is true more generally, the surrealists and Czech avant-gardists functioned politila a particularly dense network.
This is especially true of an artist like Toyen, who worked closely with other artists and poets and who nonetheless avoided revealing the usual clues to her oeuvre.
One of the dissertations goals is to examine Toyens work in light of Czech avant-garde norms and practices relating to gender and eroticism; the dissertation also situates the eroticism and gendering of Toyens surrealist work within the larger international surrealist movement.
By examination of Czech avant-garde and surrealist documents, as well as by visual analysis of Toyens work dealing with gender and erotic themes, I explicate how her work responded to surrealist thought and developed her own semiotics of gender identity. Investigation of literary texts significant to the surrealists and the Prague avant-garde, such as Lautramonts Maldoror and Mchas Maj, helps to reveal some of the sources of Toyens imagery, while examination of psychoanalytic texts by Freud, Rivire, Rank, Reich, and Bohuslav Brouk uncovers aspects of Toyens mdzinrodn to her subject matter.
Thus, I explore Toyens relationship to the central concerns of surrealismsuch as the use of unconscious material, objective chance, juxtaposition, poitika beauty, and transgressive eroticismvia investigation of historical context, literary influences, semiotics, and gender theory.
Toyen, however, is an elusive quarry. While I poltiika uncovered information that has not been used by previous scholars, we surely share a frustration at the artists astonishing ability to cover her tracks.
Unlike the surrealist icon Isidore Ducasse Comte de Lautramontshe krj her share of bureaucratic traces, had many friends, and left a significant estate that included art by herself and others, a personal library, and even politkka collection of art postcards and cheesecake photos. Yet over and over again, I have found myself weighing circumstantial evidence to conclude that she possibly or probably shared an opinion, met a particular person, or participated in an activity.
This has prompted me to work in a roundabout manner, exploring her5through her milieux, her associates, her known interests and likely inspirations. As Jindich Toman has written of the Prague Linguistic Circle, much about Toyen and Prague surrealism can only be understood if data from the margin are moved into the center.
Furthermore, while there is a growing English-language literature on the Czech avantgarde, the need to introduce and contextualize continues. The French orientation of most literature on surrealism obscures both Toyens contribution and that of the Prague surrealist group as a whole.
Partly for this reason and partly as a result of Toyens personal reticence, I approach her work via ppolitika connecting contextual themes.
In combination, these provide an understanding of aspects of early twentieth-century Czech culture pertinent to understanding this artist and her work, but mfzinrodn also contribute to understanding the larger interwar Czech cultural milieu. In other words, this dissertation interwines examination of the individual artist Toyen and her work with an investigation of the Czech avant-garde from Devtsil to surrealism.
Each chapter centers on a particular historical anchor that reveals something meinrodn Toyen and her work. First, subsequent to a discussion of the literature in the introduction, I examine Toyen as an artist more mythologized than researched. The second chapter presents three formative influences: Czech feminism, Jindich tyrsk, and the Devtsil group. Toyens internalization of common feminist ideas strongly influenced her artistic and lifestyle choices as an po,itika, innovative, and unconventional female artist.